When writing scientific manuscripts, we typically insert citation marks following a specific journal guideline. For instance, many journals use a superscript number:

This is taken from the literature.1

However, we often want to use a non-superscript when we directly talk about a reference, for instance:

According to ref. 1, there is a correlation between…

or more frequently in a figure caption:

Adapted from ref. 1.

Officially, EndNote does not support this function. However, there is a trick/workaround we can do by modifying the style file. The following are the steps to achieve this:

  1. In EndNote, open a style definition file by Tools -> Output Styles -> Edit "xxx" or open the style manager to edit a different one.
  2. In the opened window, select Citation -> Templates in the navigation panel on the left.
  3. Here, you will see two options for the in-text citations: Citation and Citation - Author (Year). This is because EndNote supports both numerical and author-year styles of citations used by various journals.
  4. Since we are dealing with a journal style that uses numbers, in practice, the author-year option saved in this file is not really used. Therefore, we can change the author-year template into a non-superscript style.
  5. Delete everything in the textbox of Citation - Author (Year).
  6. When your text insertion point/cursor is still within this textbox, click on Insert Field, and then select Bibliography Number. See the screenshot below for what it should look like after modification.

  7. You are done! Now save this style by File -> Save As.... Note, if you edited a built-in style, you cannot save it using the original name. Give it a name you like or just accept the default.
  8. Now in MS Word, select the output style that you just saved.
  9. When you want to do a non-superscript citation, click on Insert Citation in the EndNote ribbon and select the item you want. Instead of pressing Insert at the bottom of the dialog, click on the small triangle next to this button and select Insert & Display as: Author (Year). By doing this, you are inserting a citation mark with formats we just defined in the modified style file.


Now, what if we have already inserted some citation points and want to convert them into the non-superscript version?

  • Go to your EndNote ribbon in MS Word, and click on Edit & Manage Citation(s).
  • Find the reference that you want to change, look at the top of the lower half of the window. Click on the Edit Citation tab.
  • Change the Formatting option from Default to Display as: Author (Year).
  • Press OK and that’s it!

This solution was provided by Thinagarajan Kunalan, Clarivate Product Support Representative, and posted with his permission. Official documentation on this solution may be published by Clarivate later.